Volume 1-2020

Research article
Delineation of Lithological Formation in Bukit Merah, Semanggol, Perak Using Groundwater Modelling Software
Norfaezah Makzin, Mohamed Azwan Mohamed Zawawi and Aimrun Wayayok
Article number: 0031             Available online: 04 June 2021              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2021.0031

Abstract
The knowledge of lithological formation is important to determine the potential aquifer for water resources management. This study aims to delineate the lithological formation of Bukit Merah, Semanggol using geological data. The preparation of lithological formation in the study was based on several factors such as electrical resistivity survey data, available well lithologies, geological map, and geological-related studies in the study area. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) profile produced from the resistivity survey was interpreted based on previous studies to determine the subsurface materials on the location. The estimation of soil lithology for the remaining wells was done to generate the overall subsoil pattern in the study area. A total of 15 types of soil were classified to represent the actual lithology in the study area. The simplification of the actual lithology was carried out based on rocks and soils group. The elevation of the ground surface and each soil layer were imported into Visual MODFLOW software, then the interpolation of elevation points was done. Two interpolators; Kriging and Natural Neighbouring were used to generate ground surface and model layers similar to the topography in the study area. As a result, it has been identified that the study areas consist of 4 main layers of lithological formation which are unconsolidated deposit, sedimentary, metamorphic, and granite. The upper layer is dominated by unconsolidated with a maximum thickness of about 150 m in the coastal area. Hence, it is concluded that the unconsolidated deposit layer in Bukit Merah is highly potential with groundwater resources in the alluvium aquifer at the upper layer which has the potential to be developed for purpose of irrigation in a paddy field in the Kerian area.

Research article
Heat transfer assessment of multi-tier chilling pipes for root zone cooling system under crop protection structure in the tropics
Ahmad Syafik Suraidi Sulaiman, Mohd Ashraf Zainol Abidin, Desa Ahmad
Article number: 0032             Available online: 16 September 2021              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2021.0032

Abstract
The knowledge of lithological formation is important to determine the potential aquifer for water resources management. Root zone cooling technique has become an alternative cultivation method for temperate crops production in the tropics instead of cooling the aerial environment of the greenhouse. In this experiment, the root zone cooling system was incorporated with a multi-tier crop cultivation structure. This structure consisted of five tiers arranged in an A-shape design and was placed under an open rain shelter, thus, left it to undergo fluctuating environment temperature. There were five pillow polybags inserted with cocopeat and were placed on the structure. Each pillow polybag consisted of a single pipe that was buried inside the growth media located near the root zone area. This pipe that was connected to the chilled system acted as a cooling agent in controlling the growth media temperature. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Root Zone Cooling (RZC) system performance in distributing and controlling water-dissolved nutrient temperatures to meet crop-root requirement needs. From the experiment conducted, it was found that there was no significant difference between root zone temperature at different levels and lengths on multi-tier structure. The chilling pipes was able to distribute the temperatures to meet crop-root requirement needs along the multi-tier structure.