Volume 2-2020

Publisher’s note
Article number: 0007 

Editorial board
Article number: 0008 

Review article
Optical imaging techniques for rice diseases detection: A review
Nur Azizah Bachik, Norhashila Hashim, Aimrun Wayayok, Hasfalina Che Man, Maimunah Mohd Ali
Article number: 0001              Available online : 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0001

Abstract
Rice diseases have caused great economic losses to farmers in rice cultivation. The current assessment of rice disease evaluation still relies on manual, subjective, and laborious techniques. The manual and subjective evaluations lead to uncertainties since some diseases have almost similar characterisation. The applications of immunological, molecular, and microscope techniques are time-consuming, costly, and skills dependent. Thus, optical techniques are recommended to facilitate the control of diseases through their feasibility, rapidity, and accuracy, which can lead to better management strategies, besides improving production activity. These techniques for detecting and monitoring the diseases are important for precaution and prevention action. The present review discusses the existing and potential optical techniques for the detection of rice diseases. The techniques include optical imaging that consists of computer vision, spectroscopy, multispectral imaging, hyperspectral imaging (HSI), and remote sensing. Thus, this work presents in-depth information related to the nondestructive and potential applications of optical imaging techniques for rice disease detection.


Mini review
A review of non-destructive techniques applied for measuring quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches
Chen Yee Being, Norhashila Hashim, Bernard Maringgal, Mohd Hafizz Wondi
Article number: 0002              Available online : 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0002

Abstract
The quality of oil palm fruits is evaluated through several characteristics such as the ripeness level, oil content, and free fatty acid. Besides human visual assessment and destructive techniques, another alternative method that provides quality assessment on oil palm fresh fruits bunches (FFB) is through the application of non-destructive techniques. A few of the non-destructive techniques are covered in this review such as machine vision system, visible or near infrared spectroscopy, image processing using relative entropy, fluorescence technique, Kinect camera, and optical sensor system. The main quality parameter that is being evaluated is the ripeness level of the FFB because the maturity of FFB has a direct impact on the quality of the extracted oil that will eventually affect the economic value of palm oil.


Mini review

Quality evaluation of mango using non-destructive approaches: A review

Ong Phey Zhen, Norhashila Hashim, Bernard Maringgal
Article number: 0003              Available online : 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0003

Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most popular and nutritionally rich fruits. It is also acknowledged as the king of fruits in India. Quality attributes of mango fruit depends on its appearances such as size, shape, skin colour, flesh colour, flavour, sweetness, and aroma. Over the recent years, non-destructive techniques have been garnering the interest of researchers as potential technologies that can be used for quality assessment of fruits in a part of postharvest processing. The present patterns of non-destructive techniques are more efficient, inexpensive, yield faster and accurate results. This mini review paper focuses on some of the previous applications of non-destructive techniques in quality evaluation of mango, focusing specifically on the non-destructive technique based on quality parameters. The future trend of using non-destructive techniques for quality evaluation is also discussed in this review paper.


Research article

Colour evaluation of sterilized and unsterilized palm fruitlets mesocarp at different storage time

Mohd Hafizz Wondi, Rosnah Shamsudin, Robiah Yunus, Nur Izzah Nabilah Haris
Article number: 0004              Available online : 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0004

Abstract
Colour has been widely used in agriculture application in order to indicate the different level of ripeness and freshness of fruits and food. In this study, the freshness of oil palm fruitlet was evaluated by measuring its colour using colorimeter. Two types of oil palm fruitlets were investigated; sterilized and unsterilized, and the fruitlets were exposed to the environment for three days. The measurement of colour (in terms of L*, a*, and b* values) was measured using Konica Colour Reader on an exposed surface that was cut to specific dimension. The individual parameters of L*, a*, b* colour systems were measured daily for three days. The findings revealed that the unsterilized fruitlet showed the most significant color change after three days which indicates that oxidation and deterioration of the freshness continues to occur. The sterilized fruitlet did not show any major difference of colour value which can be explained by the inhibition of enzyme activity by sterilization process that causes oxidation. This study has proven that colour can be used to evaluate the freshness and oxidation of oil palm fruitlets. The findings of this study will be useful for palm oil industry to develop a proper palm freshness evaluation system.


Short communication

Electrolyzed water as a sustainable cleaning and disinfection chemical for SMEs Malaysian meat processing food industries: Challenges and uncertainties

Nurul Izzah Khalid, Norashikin Ab Aziz, Nurfatimah Mohd Thani, Ruzanna Shapi’i, Nur Farhana Abd Rahman
Article number: 0006              Available online : 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0006


Research article

Effects of different low temperature storage conditions on the physico-chemical properties of Mastura (J37) jackfruit bulbs

Amiruddin Mat Johari, Nur Aliaa Abd Rahman, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Roseliza Kadir Basha, Mohd Afandi P. Mohammed, Dzieda Muhamad Parid, Siti Zubaidah Abdul Razak, Minato Wakisaka
Article number: 0009              Available online : 2 April 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0009

Abstract
Mastura (J37) jackfruit planted in Pahang (Malaysia) is less preferred by the consumers and has caused backlog in the plantation as reported by Pahang State Farmers Association (PASFA). In this study, the proposed solution given was to use vacuum packaging to pack the bulbs and store them at 8-10ᵒC (refrigerator) and -18ᵒC (deep-freezer). After 3 weeks of storage, deep-frozen vacuum-packed bulbs had lower ripening index (265) and microbial count (6 × 102 cfu/ml) when compared to refrigerated vacuum-packed bulbs which had higher ripening index (629) and higher microbial count (52 × 102 cfu/ml). The lightness, L* value of vacuum-packed jackfruit bulb samples under deep-freeze storage was higher compared to the ones under refrigeration storage. The output obtained from this work provides preliminary data which are useful for Mastura (J37) jackfruit further downstream processing. These data are helpful as they contribute towards the understanding of further processing of this particular jackfruit variety into end products, in order to solve the issue faced by PASFA.


Research article

Purity and structural composition of lignin isolated from Miscanthus x giganteus by sub-critical water extraction with associated modifiers

Muhammad Hazwan Hamzah, Steve Bowra, Philip Cox
Article number: 0010              Available online : 15 April 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0010

Abstract
Lignin is an industrial by-product produced from the pulping and paper industry, where the process generates lignin in the form of lignosulphonates. While there are many applications for lignin, there are all low value and attempts to add value to lignin are hindered by its complex physicochemical nature and the presence of sulphur. Adopting the biorefining concept, the study evaluates the impact of direct (DE) and sequential extraction (SE) of Miscanthus x giganteus using sub-critical water with associated modifiers; ethanol and carbon dioxide on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted lignin. Isolated lignins were characterised by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Although higher delignification was achieved by DE and SE about 81.5% and 58.0%, respectively, the lignin recovered from the SE process showed remarkably higher purity with 91.5%. Lignin recovery did not differ considerably for either processing method. FTIR revealed a qualitative reduction in the intensity of bonds corresponding to hydroxyl groups for the lignin derived from DE rather than SE processing routes. These indicated that the lignin derived from SE had potential for subsequent preparation in lignin value-added bio-based materials.

In Progress