Volume 1-2020

Publisher’s note
Article number: 0007 

Editorial board
Article number: 0008 

Review article
Optical imaging techniques for rice diseases detection: A review
Nur Azizah Bachik, Norhashila Hashim, Aimrun Wayayok, Hasfalina Che Man, Maimunah Mohd Ali
Article number: 0001              Available online: 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0001

Abstract
Rice diseases have caused great economic losses to farmers in rice cultivation. The current assessment of rice disease evaluation still relies on manual, subjective, and laborious techniques. The manual and subjective evaluations lead to uncertainties since some diseases have almost similar characterisation. The applications of immunological, molecular, and microscope techniques are time-consuming, costly, and skills dependent. Thus, optical techniques are recommended to facilitate the control of diseases through their feasibility, rapidity, and accuracy, which can lead to better management strategies, besides improving production activity. These techniques for detecting and monitoring the diseases are important for precaution and prevention action. The present review discusses the existing and potential optical techniques for the detection of rice diseases. The techniques include optical imaging that consists of computer vision, spectroscopy, multispectral imaging, hyperspectral imaging (HSI), and remote sensing. Thus, this work presents in-depth information related to the nondestructive and potential applications of optical imaging techniques for rice disease detection.


Mini review
A review of non-destructive techniques applied for measuring quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches
Chen Yee Being, Norhashila Hashim, Bernard Maringgal, Mohd Hafizz Wondi
Article number: 0002              Available online: 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0002

Abstract
The quality of oil palm fruits is evaluated through several characteristics such as the ripeness level, oil content, and free fatty acid. Besides human visual assessment and destructive techniques, another alternative method that provides quality assessment on oil palm fresh fruits bunches (FFB) is through the application of non-destructive techniques. A few of the non-destructive techniques are covered in this review such as machine vision system, visible or near infrared spectroscopy, image processing using relative entropy, fluorescence technique, Kinect camera, and optical sensor system. The main quality parameter that is being evaluated is the ripeness level of the FFB because the maturity of FFB has a direct impact on the quality of the extracted oil that will eventually affect the economic value of palm oil.


Mini review

Quality evaluation of mango using non-destructive approaches: A review

Ong Phey Zhen, Norhashila Hashim, Bernard Maringgal
Article number: 0003              Available online: 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0003

Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most popular and nutritionally rich fruits. It is also acknowledged as the king of fruits in India. Quality attributes of mango fruit depends on its appearances such as size, shape, skin colour, flesh colour, flavour, sweetness, and aroma. Over the recent years, non-destructive techniques have been garnering the interest of researchers as potential technologies that can be used for quality assessment of fruits in a part of postharvest processing. The present patterns of non-destructive techniques are more efficient, inexpensive, yield faster and accurate results. This mini review paper focuses on some of the previous applications of non-destructive techniques in quality evaluation of mango, focusing specifically on the non-destructive technique based on quality parameters. The future trend of using non-destructive techniques for quality evaluation is also discussed in this review paper.


Research article

Colour evaluation of sterilized and unsterilized palm fruitlets mesocarp at different storage time

Mohd Hafizz Wondi, Rosnah Shamsudin, Robiah Yunus, Nur Izzah Nabilah Haris
Article number: 0004              Available online: 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0004

Abstract
Colour has been widely used in agriculture application in order to indicate the different level of ripeness and freshness of fruits and food. In this study, the freshness of oil palm fruitlet was evaluated by measuring its colour using colorimeter. Two types of oil palm fruitlets were investigated; sterilized and unsterilized, and the fruitlets were exposed to the environment for three days. The measurement of colour (in terms of L*, a*, and b* values) was measured using Konica Colour Reader on an exposed surface that was cut to specific dimension. The individual parameters of L*, a*, b* colour systems were measured daily for three days. The findings revealed that the unsterilized fruitlet showed the most significant color change after three days which indicates that oxidation and deterioration of the freshness continues to occur. The sterilized fruitlet did not show any major difference of colour value which can be explained by the inhibition of enzyme activity by sterilization process that causes oxidation. This study has proven that colour can be used to evaluate the freshness and oxidation of oil palm fruitlets. The findings of this study will be useful for palm oil industry to develop a proper palm freshness evaluation system.


Short communication

Electrolyzed water as a sustainable cleaning and disinfection chemical for SMEs Malaysian meat processing food industries: Challenges and uncertainties

Nurul Izzah Khalid, Norashikin Ab Aziz, Nurfatimah Mohd Thani, Ruzanna Shapi’i, Nur Farhana Abd Rahman
Article number: 0006              Available online: 12 March 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0006


Research article

Effects of different low temperature storage conditions on the physico-chemical properties of Mastura (J37) jackfruit bulbs

Amiruddin Mat Johari, Nur Aliaa Abd Rahman, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Roseliza Kadir Basha, Mohd Afandi P. Mohammed, Dzieda Muhamad Parid, Siti Zubaidah Abdul Razak, Minato Wakisaka
Article number: 0009              Available online: 2 April 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0009

Abstract
Mastura (J37) jackfruit planted in Pahang (Malaysia) is less preferred by the consumers and has caused backlog in the plantation as reported by Pahang State Farmers Association (PASFA). In this study, the proposed solution given was to use vacuum packaging to pack the bulbs and store them at 8-10ᵒC (refrigerator) and -18ᵒC (deep-freezer). After 3 weeks of storage, deep-frozen vacuum-packed bulbs had lower ripening index (265) and microbial count (6 × 102 cfu/ml) when compared to refrigerated vacuum-packed bulbs which had higher ripening index (629) and higher microbial count (52 × 102 cfu/ml). The lightness, L* value of vacuum-packed jackfruit bulb samples under deep-freeze storage was higher compared to the ones under refrigeration storage. The output obtained from this work provides preliminary data which are useful for Mastura (J37) jackfruit further downstream processing. These data are helpful as they contribute towards the understanding of further processing of this particular jackfruit variety into end products, in order to solve the issue faced by PASFA.


Research article

Purity and structural composition of lignin isolated from Miscanthus x giganteus by sub-critical water extraction with associated modifiers

Muhammad Hazwan Hamzah, Steve Bowra, Philip Cox
Article number: 0010              Available online: 15 April 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0010

Abstract
Lignin is an industrial by-product produced from the pulping and paper industry, where the process generates lignin in the form of lignosulphonates. While there are many applications for lignin, there are all low value and attempts to add value to lignin are hindered by its complex physicochemical nature and the presence of sulphur. Adopting the biorefining concept, the study evaluates the impact of direct (DE) and sequential extraction (SE) of Miscanthus x giganteus using sub-critical water with associated modifiers; ethanol and carbon dioxide on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted lignin. Isolated lignins were characterised by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Although higher delignification was achieved by DE and SE about 81.5% and 58.0%, respectively, the lignin recovered from the SE process showed remarkably higher purity with 91.5%. Lignin recovery did not differ considerably for either processing method. FTIR revealed a qualitative reduction in the intensity of bonds corresponding to hydroxyl groups for the lignin derived from DE rather than SE processing routes. These indicated that the lignin derived from SE had potential for subsequent preparation in lignin value-added bio-based materials.


Mini review

An overview of non-destructive approaches for quality determination in pineapples

Maimunah Mohd Ali, Norhashila Hashim, Samsuzana Abd Aziz, Ola Lasekan
Article number: 0011              Available online: 2 May 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0011

Abstract
Pineapple is one of the healthful and popular tropical fruits in the world. The quality determination of pineapples was mostly evaluated by human inspection which is inconsistent and subjective. The increasing demand for pineapples creates more opportunities for the advancement of rapid and non-destructive approaches to seek quality evaluation of the fruit. This review gives an overview of the non-destructive approaches on the quality determination of pineapples including computer vision, imaging-based approaches, spectroscopy-based approaches, acoustic impulse, and electronic nose. The advance of non-destructive techniques to evaluate the quality of pineapple can produce better yield and improve postharvest handling. This paper also highlighted the recent works on the quality determination of pineapple fruit using non-destructive approaches along with the abundant information that can be explored for real-time purposes. This information is expected to be useful not only for pineapples growers/industries but also for other agro-food commodities.

Research article
Consumers’ delayed consumption of bakery products: Effect on physical and chemical properties
Nurfatimah Mohd Thani, Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal, Alifdalino Sulaiman, Farah Saleena Taip, Rozita Omar
Article number: 0013             Available online: 4 May 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0013

Abstract
Delay in the consumption of bakery products has contributed to the food waste problem, which is a serious global issue. Delayed consumption or can be regarded as the ‘leftovers’ bakery products such as croissants and doughnuts are normally discarded due to the impairment in texture or quality degradation causing them to taste not as good as fresh baked, although the products still edible. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the physical and chemical changes during the delaying of consumption of croissants and doughnuts at three (3) different storage times (day 0, 1 and 2). The hardness of croissants and doughnuts had an increased throughout storage time, with doughnuts have the higher hardness than croissants, with 175.63 % and 92.31 % increased, respectively. Carbohydrate was found as the major component for croissants and doughnuts. Croissants and doughnuts recorded carbohydrate content of (50.32-52.42 %) and (43.22-46.59 %), respectively, from day 0 to day 2. While sugar profile analysis detected three types of monosaccharides sugars, which were fructose, glucose and maltose for croissants and doughnuts. Thus, high content of carbohydrate and monosaccharides that available in the leftovers doughnut and croissants suggest that it could potentially be used as renewable resources for sugar recovery.


Short communication
Capturing the impact of nanobubble liquid in enhancing the physical quality of ice cream
Norhafizah Mohamad Khair, Nur Aliaa Abd Rahman, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Halimatun Saadiah Hafid, Minato Wakisaka
Article number: 0012             Available online: 11 May 2020              http://doi.org/10.37865/jafe.2020.0012

Abstract
Nanobubbles are bubbles of nanometer to micrometer size and are dispersed in a liquid water. In recent years, nanobubbles technology has been used in an extensive range of application such as in drinking water, agriculture, fishery, wastewater treatment and food. In ice cream, air cells are important for the smooth texture of ice cream. In this study, the effects of using nanobubble liquid in ice cream was compared with the one using normal water. Samples were prepared and analysis was conducted to check the physical properties of ice cream. Based on the results obtained, the apparent viscosity of ice cream made using nanobubble liquid (INBL) and normal water (INW) were 0.211 Pa.s and 0.149 Pa.s, respectively. INBL ice cream had higher density and firmness which were 0.77 g/mL and 34.80 gram-force, respectively while INM ice cream had slightly lower density and firmness which were 0.74 g/mL and 29.93 gram-force, respectively. The overrun of INBL ice cream was lower which was 46 % while INW ice cream was 54 %. For both INW and  INBL ice creams, the fastest melting rate was recorded between 10-30 min at the rate of 1.491 g/min and 1.558 g/min, respectively. INBL ice cream held its body slightly longer and melted a bit later than INW ice cream. As a conclusion, ice cream with lower overrun is denser and has rich texture. Smaller air bubbles are able to hold the ice cream body better than the ones with larger air bubbles. Nanobubble liquid ice cream has higher firmness value which indicates its ability to better retain its shape.